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Citation: J Periodontol. 2022 Dec 16. 

Authors: Jacob W. Zellner, Hunter T. Allen, Georgios A. Kotsakis, Brian L. Mealey

Abstract: The amount of time it takes for bone allograft particles to be replaced with new vital bone during ridge preservation is unclear. The purpose of this article was to compare the wound healing and vital bone formation following ridge preservation using a combination allograft of 70% mineralized and 30% demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft at 4 months (short-term, ST) versus 12 months (long-term, LT). Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in the study who required extraction of a single tooth (excluding second and third molars) and were planned for replacement with a dental implant. After tooth extraction, all sites were grafted with a combination allograft procured from a single donor, and patients were randomized into the ST or LT healing groups. Patients returned for implant placement and an 8-mm bone core biopsy was harvested using a trephine drill during initial implant osteotomy preparation. The cores were then analyzed histologically to determine the percentages of vital bone formation, residual graft particles, and connective tissue/other. There was significantly greater vital bone formation in the LT group (51.38%) compared with the ST group (31.39%) (p = 0.0025) and significantly fewer residual graft particles in the LT group (18.04%) compared with the ST group (40.38%). A longer healing time following ridge preservation results in more vital bone formation and less residual graft particles at the time of implant placement. However, residual allograft material still remains at 12 months after ridge preservation.

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