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Citation: Front Oral Health. 2021 Jul 14;2:689475

AuthorsShatha Bamashmous, Georgios A. Kotsakis, Sumita Jain, Ana M. Chang, JeffreyS.McLean, and Richard P. Darveau

Abstract: Clinically healthy gingival tissue is maintained through controlled regulation of host defense mechanisms against plaque biofilm overgrowth. One key component is the transit of neutrophils from the vasculature into gingival tissue where the expression of different neutrophil chemokines are tightly regulated. This cross-sectional study examines the inter-individual variability in chemokine profiles within gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in relation to the subgingival bacterial community in a state of gingival health. Gingival crevicular fluid and subgingival plaque samples were collected from mesiobuccal surfaces of all six Ramfjord teeth of 20 systemically healthy individuals (14.55 ± 1.67 years). A multiplex immunoassay was carried out to quantify the expression of 40 different chemokines in the healthy gingival tissue. Neutrophils were assessed indirectly by myeloperoxidase (MPO) in GCF using traditional ELISA. Characterization of healthy subgingival plaque was conducted with the Illumina Miseq targeting the 16S rRNA gene. In health, there are distinct variations within individual gingival crevicular fluid chemokine expression profiles, as well as in the concentration of neutrophils, that divided the participants into high or low chemokine expressing groups. Specifically, key differences were identified within MIF (2683.54 ± 985.82 pg per 30-s sample), IL-8/CXCL8 (170.98 ± 176.96 pg per 30-s sample), Gro-α/CXCL1 (160.42 ± 94.21 pg per 30-s sample), ENA-78/CXCL5 (137.76 ± 76.02 pg per 30-s sample), IL-1β (51.39 ± 37.23 pg per 30-s sample), TNF-α (1.76 ± 1.79 pg per 30-s sample), and IFN-γ (0.92 ± 0.54 pg per 30-s sample). Of these identified chemokines, the highest correlation was associated between IL-8/CXCL8 and neutrophils (r = 0.54, p = 0.014). Furthermore, species characterization of healthy subgingival plaque revealed significant inter-individual variability that identified two unique groups unrelated to the previously identified chemokine groups. The lack of concordance between the microbial composition and chemokine profile during health may be a reflection of the unique microbial composition of each individual coupled with variations within their host response, emphasizing the vast complexity of the defense mechanisms in place to maintain gingival health.

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