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Citation: Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2022 Nov 4. 

Authors: Georgios A. Kotsakis, Thomas T. Nguyen, Konstantinos Siormpas, Michael A. Pikos, Snjezana Pohl, Dennis Tarnow, Miltiadis Mitsias, Root Membrane Group

Abstract: Immediate implant placement in conjunction with partial extraction therapy has been shown to result in functional osseo- and dento-integration with partial preservation of the periodontal ligament (PDL) in humans. Strategic buccal root retention for PDL preservation is a biologically driven procedure that maintains alveolar ridge dimensions and esthetics, while allowing for implant placement. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of longitudinal clinical outcomes of PDL-mediated ridge preservation in conjunction with implant placement in adults, compared with conventional immediate implant placement with total extractions. The primary outcome for this study was marginal bone level (MBL) changes after strategic buccal root retention implant placement techniques. To address a predefined PICOS question, a systematic search of randomized clinical trials and cohort studies with at least 10 participants per group and a minimum 12-month follow-up was conducted. A two-phase systematic selection strategy, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment, was performed independently and in duplicate. Randomized trials were quantitatively analyzed in a meta-analysis. Ten human studies fulfilled the predefined criteria and were included; three clinical trials and seven cohort studies, for a total of 506 patients and 587 implants. PDL-mediated implant placement of single-rooted periodontally healthy teeth was found to reduce marginal peri-implant bone loss and buccal plate changes as compared to conventional immediate implants across studies, while implant survival and success rates were comparable between the two procedures. A meta-analysis found that bone changes were significantly less when retention of the buccal root section was performed as compared to total extractions (standardized mean difference: [-4.53, -0.11]); the three clinical trials were, however, largely heterogeneous (I2 : 93.1%; Q = 28.98, p < 0.001). Strategic retention of the buccal root section has a benefit in terms of dimensional ridge stability over conventional immediate implantation when implemented in carefully selected cases of single-rooted teeth.

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