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Citation: Semin Immunol. 2022 Jan;59:101608.

Authors: Tetsuhiro Kajikawa, Dimitrios C. Mastellos, Hatice Hasturk, Georgios A. Kotsakis, Despina Yancopoulou, John D. Lambris, George Hajishengallis

Abstract: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by biofilm accumulation and dysbiosis in subgingival areas surrounding the teeth. If not properly treated, this oral disease may result in tooth loss and consequently poor esthetics, deteriorated masticatory function and compromised quality of life. Epidemiological and clinical intervention studies indicate that periodontitis can potentially aggravate systemic diseases, such as, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer disease. Therefore, improvements in the treatment of periodontal disease may benefit not only oral health but also systemic health. The complement system is an ancient host defense system that plays pivotal roles in immunosurveillance and tissue homeostasis. However, complement has unwanted consequences if not controlled appropriately or excessively activated. Complement overactivation has been observed in patients with periodontitis and in animal models of periodontitis and drives periodontal inflammation and tissue destruction. This review places emphasis on a promising periodontal host-modulation therapy targeting the complement system, namely the complement C3-targeting drug, AMY-101. AMY-101 has shown safety and efficacy in reducing gingival inflammation in a recent Phase 2a clinical study. We also discuss the potential of AMY-101 to treat peri-implant inflammatory conditions, where complement also seems to be involved and there is an urgent unmet need for effective treatment.

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