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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of an anorganic bovine bone graft particulate to that of a calcium phosphosilicate putty alloplast for socket preservation. Materials and Methods: Thirty teeth were extracted from 24 patients. The sockets were debrided and received anorganic bovine bone mineral (BOV, n = 12), calcium phosphosilicate putty (PUT, n = 12), or no graft (CTRL, n = 6). The sockets were assessed clinically and radiographically 5 months later. Eight sockets in the BOV group and nine in the PUT group received implants 5 to 6 months postgrafting. The maximum implant insertion torque (MIT) was measured as an index of primary implant stability. The data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Both test groups had statistically significantly less reduction in mean ridge width (BOV: 1.39 ± 0.57 mm; PUT: 1.26 ± 0.41 mm) in comparison to the control group (2.53 ± 0.59 mm). No statistically significant difference was identified between the test groups. MIT for PUT was ≤ 35 N/cm2 (MIT grade 4) for seven of the nine implants. MIT values in the BOV group ranged from grade 1 (10 to 19 N/cm2) to grade 4, which was statistically significantly lower than for the PUT group. The overall implant success rate was 94.1% (16 of 17 implants were successful). No implants were lost in the PUT group; one implant failed in the BOV group. Conclusion: Both tested bone substitutes can be recommended for preservation of alveolar ridge width following extraction. PUT might be more suitable for achieving primary stability for implants placed at 5 to 6 months postextraction.

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