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Citation: Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2017 May/June;32(3):575–581.

Authors: Theofilos Koutouzis, Fatemeh Gholami, John Reynolds, Tord Lundgren, Georgios A. Kotsakis


 Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that marginal bone loss can be secondary to repeated disconnection and reconnection of abutments that affect the peri-implant mucosal seal. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of abutment disconnections/reconnections on peri-implant marginal bone level changes. The authors initially identified 392 titles and abstracts. After evaluation, seven controlled clinical studies were included. Qualitative assessment of the articles revealed a trend toward protective marginal bone level preservation for implants with final abutment placement (FAP) at the time of implant placement compared with implants for which there were multiple abutment placements (MAP). The FAP group exhibited a marginal bone level change ranging from 0.08 to 0.34 mm, whereas the MAP group exhibited a marginal bone level change ranging from 0.09 to 0.55 mm. Meta-analysis of the seven studies reporting on 396 implants showed significantly greater bone loss in cases of multiple abutment disconnections/reconnections. The weighted mean difference in marginal bone loss was 0.19 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.32 mm), favoring bone preservation in the FAP group. Within the limitations of this meta-analysis, abutment disconnection and reconnection significantly affected peri-implant marginal bone levels. These findings pave the way for revisiting current restorative protocols at the restorative treatment planning stage to prevent incipient marginal bone loss.

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